Spis treści: Torture and Democracy


Contents
Preface,s. xv
Acknowledgments,s. xix


Introduction, s. i

  • Historical Claims, s. 3
  • Puzzles and Cautions, s. 5
  • The Priority of Public Monitoring, s. 8
  • Variations among States, s. 11
  • Variations within States, s. 15
  • National Styles of Stealth Torture, s. 16
  • Torture and Democracy, s. 21
  • Does Torture Work?, s. 23
  • Who Cares?, s. 25

Torture and Democracy, s. 33

Modern Torture and Its Observers

  • Defining Torture, s. 36
  • Monitoring Torture, s. 39

Torture and Democracy, s. 45

  • The National Security Model, s. 46
  • The Juridical Model, s. 49
  • The Civic Discipline Model, s. 55
  • Hell Is in the Details, s. 60

II  Remembering Stalinism and Nazism, s. 65  

  • Introduction, s. 67

3 Lights, Heat, and Sweat, s. 69

  • Sweating and Stealth in America, s. 70
  • British Psychological Techniques, s. 74
  • Interrogation Elsewhere in Europe, s. 76
  • Sweating and Stealth in Russia, s. 79
  • The Spread of the Russian Style, s. 83
  • Remembering Pavlov, s. 87

4 Whips and Water, s. 91

  • Labussiere's List, s. 92
  • Documenting Nazi Torture, s. 93
  • Torture in Germany, s. 95
  • Torture in Nazi-Occupied Europe, s. 97
  • Remembering the War, s. 104

5 Bathtubs,s. 108

  • Masuy's Bathtub, s. 109
  • Marty's Magneto, s. 111
  • The French Gestapo and Electric Torture, s. 112
  • The Decline of Sweating and Stealth, s. 115
  • The German Gestapo and Modern Torture, s. 117
  • Remembering Nuremberg, s. 117
  • The Search for Electric Torture, s. 118

III A History of Electric Stealth, s. 121

6 Shock, s. 123

  • The AC/DC Controversy and the Electric Chair, s. 124
  • The Mystery of Electric Death, s. 126
  • Early Police Devices, s. 128
  • The Mystery of Shock, s. 132
  • Early Medical Devices, s. 135
  • Transmitting Shock, s. 138
  • Later Medical Devices, s. 139
  • Remembering the Animals, s. 141

7 Magnetos,s. 144

  • What Is a Magneto?, s. 145
  • Indochina, 1931, s. 146
  • Out of Indochina, s. 149
  • Korea, 1931, s. 150
  • Out of Korea, s. 152
  • The Lost History of the Magneto, s. 155
  • French and British Electrotorture after World War II, s. 157
  • The Colonial Police and Wuillaume's List, s. 160
  • The Triumph of the Gegene, s. 161
  • Algeria, i960, s. 163
  • Remembering the Gestapo, s. 165

8 Currents, s. 167

  • South Vietnamese Torture, s. 170
  • Vietnam, 1968, s. 172
  • Bell Telephone Hour, s. 174
  • Out of Vietnam Again, s. 178
  • Variation within the French Style, s. 183
  • Cattle Prods, s. 185
  • The Electric Cornucopia, s. 186
  • Remembering Vietnam, s. 188

9 Singing the World Electric, s. 190

  • When Electrotorture Was New,s . 190
  • Explaining Clean Electrotorture, s. 194
  • Crafting Electrotorture, s. 197
  • Surging Forward, s. 201
  • The Americas, s. 203
  • Middle East and North Africa, s. 207
  • Asia, s. 209
  • Sub-Saharan Africa, s. 211
  • Europe and Central Asia, s. 214
  • Explaining the Surge, s. 216
  • Remembering the Cold War, s. 222

10 Prods, Tasers, and Stun Guns, s. 225

  • Electric Utopia, s. 225
  • Electric-Free Protest, s. 227
  • Stun Technology, s. 229
  • Covering America, s. 230
  • Remembering Eutopia, s. 237

11 Stun City,s. 239

  • Magneto Torture in Chicago, s. 240
  • Stun and Torture, s. 242
  • Tasers and Torture, s. 245
  • Burning Issues, s. 248
  • Stun and Democracy, s. 249
  • But No One Died, s. 252
  • Civic Shoc, s. 253
  • Welcome to Stun City, s. 255

IV Other Stealth Traditions,s. 259

  • Introduction,s. 261

12 Sticks and Bones,s. 269

  • Clean Whipping, s. 269
  • Paddles, s. 271
  • Beating Feet, s. 273
  • Remembering Slaves and Sailors, s. 277

13 Water, Sleep, and Spice, s. 279

  • Pumping, s. 280
  • Choking, s. 281
  • Showers and Ice, s. 285
  • Salt and Spice, s. 287
  • Deprivation of Sleep, s. 290
  • Remembering the Inquisition, s. 292

14 Stress and Duress, s. 294

  • Great and Lesser Stress Traditions, s. 295
  • British Stress Tortures, s. 296
  • French Stress Tortures, s. 301
  • American Stress Tortures, s. 306
  • Authoritarian Adaptations, s. 311
  • Remembering the Eighteenth Century, s. 314

15 Forced Standing and Other Positions, s. 316

  • Old Users after the War, s. 317
  • Positional Tortures in the Communist World, s. 322
  • Positional Tortures in the Non-Communist World, s. 324
  • The Universal Distributor Hypothesis Revisited, s. 329
  • Remembering the Hooded Men, s. 332

16 Fists and Exercises, s. 334

  • Clean Beating, s. 335
  • Adapting "the Necktie", s. 341
  • Exhaustion Exercises, s. 342
  • Remembering the Grunts and the Cops, s. 345

17 Old and New Restraints, s. 347

  • Bucking (the Parrot's Perch), s. 347
  • The Crapaudine, s. 349
  • Standing Handcuffs, s. 350
  • Sweatboxes, s. 351
  • Adapting Old Restraints, s. 353
  • The Shabeh, s. 354
  • Remembering the Allied POWs, s. 357

18 Noise, s. 360

  • Low-Technology Noise, s. 360
  • High-Technology Noise, s. 363
  • The CIA and Sensory Deprivation Boxes, s. 368
  • Beyond the Laboratory, s. 371
  • Principles and Guinea Pigs, s. 373
  • Remembering Evil, s. 384

19 Drugs and Doctors, s. 385

  • Police and Drugs, s. 386
  • The CIA and Drugs, s. 388
  • The Decline of Pharmacological Torture, s. 390
  • Soviet Pharmacological Torture, s. 392
  • Communist Pyschoprisons, s. 394
  • Lines of Defense, s. 397
  • Remembering the Prison Doctors, s. 401

V Politics and Memory, s. 403

20 Supply and Demand for Clean Torture, s. 405

  • Historical Claims, s. 406
  • The Priority of Public Monitoring, s. 409
  • Variations among and within States, s. 414
  • National Styles of Stealth Torture, s. 419
  • The Strength of Low Technology, s. 423
  • The Power of Whispers, s. 426
  • Why Styles Change, s. 434
  • Disciplinary Interventions, s. 439
  • The Demand for Torture, s. 444

Does Torture Work?, s. 446

  • Can Torture Be Scientific?, s. 447
  • Can Torture Be Restrained?, s. 450
  • Does Technology Help?, s. 453
  • Can Torture Be Professionally Conducted?, s. 454
  • Works Better Than What?, s. 458
  • Is Anything Better Than Nothing?, s. 460
  • How Well Do Interrogators Spot the Truth?, s. 463
  • How Well Do Cooperative Prisoners Remember?
  • How Good Is the Intelligence Overall?, s. 469
  • Even When Time Is Short?, s. 474
  • Remembering the Questions, s. 478

What the Apologists Say,s. 480

  • Remembering the Battle of Algiers, s. 481
  • Information in the Battle of Algiers, s. 482
  • French Interrogation Units, s. 485
  • Coerced Information in the Algerian War, s. 487
  • Saving Innocents, Losing Wars, s. 492
  • Gestapo Stories, s. 493
  • Stories from the Resistance, s. 495
  • CIA Stories, s. 500
  • The Interrogation of Al Qaeda, s. 503
  • Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo, s. 508
  • Afghanistan, s. 511
  • Testimonial Literature from Other Conflicts, s. 513
  • Remembering Abu Ghraib, s. 518

Why Governments Don't Learn,s. 519

  • How Knowledge Does Not Accumulate, s. 520
  • How Knowledge Is Not Analyzed, s. 521
  • How Torture Warrants Might Help, s. 523
  • Regulating Torture, s. 526
  • Variations in Regulative Failure, s. 529
  • Stealth and the Regulation of Torture, s. 532
  • How Knowledge Does Not Matter, s. 533
  • Remembering the Soldiers, s. 535

24  The Great Age of Torture in Modem Memory,s. 537

  • The Great Rift, s. 538
  • The Architecture of Amnesia, s. 540
  • The Designs of Genius, s. 542
  • Demons in the City, s. 543
  • Algerian Souvenirs, s. 545
  • Caring for the Memories, s. 550

Appendixes

A  A List of Clean Tortures, s. 553
B   Issues of Method, s. 557
c   Organization and Explanations, s. 566
D  A Note on Sources for American Torture during the Vietnam War, s. 581

Notes, s. 593
Selected Bibliography, s. 781
Index, s. 819

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