Spis treści : A history of modern Africa



List of Maps, xii
List of Plates, xiii
Acknowledgments, xvi

1     Introduction: Understanding the Contours of Africa's Past, s. 1

A Brief History of the Study of Africa, s. 4
Land, s. 7
People, s. 10
The Structure of the Book, s. 15

Part I    Polity, Society, and Economy in the Nineteenth Century, s. 17

2. Western Transitions: Slave Trade and "Legitimate" Commerce in Atlantic Africa, s. 23

States and Societies during the Atlantic Slave Trade, s. 24
"Illegal" Traffic: The Nineteenth-Century Slave Trade, s. 28
Mineral and Vegetable: "Legitimate" Commerce, s. 31
Change and Continuity in Forest and Savannah, s. 35

3. Eastern Intrusions: Slaves and Ivory in Eastern Africa , s. 42

Commercial Horizons: Slaves and Ivory, s. 43
Maritime Empire: Zanzibar, s. 48
Statehood, Conflict, and Trade (1): The Lacustrine Zone, s. 52
Statehood, Conflict, and Trade (2): Northeastern Africa, s. 60

4. Southern Frontiers: Colony and Revolution in Southern Africa, s. 64

African State and Society to around 1800, s. 64
War, Revolution, and the Zulu Impact, s. 66
Cape Colonialism: White Settlement and the "Native Question", s. 70
Voortrekkers: White Communities in the Interior, s. 73
Balances of Power to around 1870, s. 74

Part II    Africa and Islam in the Nineteenth Century, s. 77

5. Revival and Reaction: North African Islam, s. 81

Old and New Identities: Brotherhoods of the Desert, s. 81
Trade and Conflict in the Mediterranean World: Ottoman and European Frontiers, s. 82
Changing Society (1): The Maghreb, s. 85
Changing Society (2): Egypt, s. 90

6. Jihad: Revolutions in Western Africa, s. 94

Islam in Western Africa to the Eighteenth Century, s. 94
The Wandering Fulani, s. 96
Prophets and Warriors, s. 97

7. The Eastern Crescent: The Islamic Frontier in Eastern Africa, s. 102

Swahili Islam: Coastal Frontiers in the Nineteenth Century, s. 102
Islam in the Central East African Interior, s. 104
Cross and Crescent in Northeast Africa, s. 105
Islam on the Nile, s. 107

Part III   Africa and Europe in the Nineteenth Century         ill

8. The Lonely Cross: Missionary Frontiers, s. 115

European Missionary Activity in Africa to around 1800, s. 115
Evangelical Humanitarians: Missionary Revival, s. 117
The Christian Impact on Culture, State, and Society, s. 119
Mission and Empire, s. 124

9. The Wandering White Man: Africa Explored, s. 128

Interested Gentlemen and Learned Bodies: Explorers and Exploration, s. 128
Creeping Hegemony and the Invention of Africa, s. 132

10. "Whatever Happens ...": Towards the Scramble, s. 134

Africa and Theories of Imperialism, s. 135
Race and Culture, s. 137
Disorder and Civilizing Violence: Political and Economic justifications, s. 140

Part IV    Consolidating Colonialisms, s. 145

11. Africans Adapting: Conquest and Partition, s. 149

Explaining the "Conquest", s. 149
Spears and Water: Violent Resistance, s. 154
Histories Old and New: Colonialism and Historical "Knowledge", s. 164
Realities Old and New: Colonialism and Political "Knowledge", s. 167

12. Empires of Soil and Service, s. 175

Cash Crops, s. 176
White Settlement, s. 179
Industry, s. 183
Troops, s. 186
Slaves and Labor, s. 188

13. Bush Wars and Distant Shadows: Africa in Global War (1), 191

The War in the Continent, s. 191
The Socioeconomic Impact, s. 195
Africa, Versailles, and the League of Nations: New Principles for a New Era?, s. 196

Part V    Colonial Apex, s. 199

14. "Pax Colonia"? Notions of Progress, Manifestations of Change, s. 205

Social Change and Emergent Crisis, s. 205
Hearts and Minds, s. 208
The Environmental and Medical Impact, s. 210

15. Hard Times: Protest, Identity, and Depression, s. 217

Making Tribes, s. 217
Emergent Protest in the Islamic world, s. 220
Salvation and Resistance: The African Church, s. 221
Class and Tribe: The Industrial Complex, s. 223
Cash Crops, Rural Crises, and Peasant Protest, s. 226
Other Voices, s. 228

16. Other People's Battles (Again): Africa in Global War (2), s. 234

The War in the Continent, s. 234
Shifts in Politics and Society, s. 239

Part VI    The Dissolution of Empire, s. 245

17. The Beached Whale: Colonial Strategies in the Postwar World, s. 249

Postwar Africa and the International Climate, s. 250
Economic Policies and Visions, circa 1945-50, s. 251
Political Plans, circa 1945-50, s. 254

18. Conceiving and Producing Nations, s. 256

The Roots of Invention, s. 256
From Political Consciousness to Political Parties,s. 258
Irresistible Force and Immovable Object: Nationalists and Settlers, s. 265

19. Compromising Conflict: Routes to Independence, s. 270

Debate and Debacle: "Constitutional" Transfers of Power, s. 270
Violence: Growth, Form, and Impact, s. 277
From Suez to Sharpeville, and Beyond: The End of High Imperialism, s. 285

Part VII    Legacies, New Beginnings, and Unfinished Business, s. 289

20. Crowded House: Friends, Foes, and Ideologies in the Cold War, s. 293

Africa and International Politics, s. 293
Insurgence and Intervention, s. 297

21. Unsafe Foundations: Challenges of Independence, s. 300

Building the Nation (1): Economy and Society, s. 300
Building the Nation (2): Polity, s. 306
Political Stability and Islam, s. 312
The Military in African Politics, s. 317

22. Rectification, Redemption, and Reality: Contemporary Africa, s. 324

Africa and the Post-Cold War World, 324
"Good Governance," "People Power," and Conflict, 327
Managing Modernity (1): Food and Famine, s. 334
Managing Modernity (2): Debt and Development, s. 337
Social Changes: Education and Health, s. 339

Notes, s. 343
Further Reading, s. 346
Index, s. 359

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