Spis treści: The Anatomy of Despondency: European Socio-Cultural Criticism 1789-1939


  • Preface 15
  • Introduction 17

Chapter One: Aspects of Physiognomy 29

1. Cities 32

  • 1.1.City Life 32
  • 1.2.London, Paris, Berlin 34
  • 1.3.The Rise of Suburbia 39

2. The Environment 39

  • 2.1.Symphony in Black 39
  • 2.2.The Defilement of Nature 43
  • 2.2.1. Against Nature 47

3. Architecture 50

  • 3.1.Its Leading Role 50
  • 3.1.1. Harmony and Unity 52
  • 3.2.Decline 53
  • 3.2.1. Prestige of the Architect 56
  • 3.3.New Demands 58

4. Style and Form 61

  • 4.1.A Carnival of Styles 61
  • 4.2.Lack of Style 64
  • 4.2.1.Colonnades of Confusion 67
  • 4.2.2.Temples of Greed 69
  • 4.3.Formlessness  71
  • 4.4.Costume of the Age  74
  • 4.4.1. Dressed in Black 78
  • Notes  81

Chapter Two Disintegration Ill

1. Individualization 114

  • 1.1.God and Man 114
  • 1.2.Man for Himself 116
  • 1.3.Man as Creator 118
  • 1.3.1Creation versus Invention (pre-1801) 118
  • 1.3.2To rival God 120
  • 1.4.Individualism 123
  • 1.4.1. Crisis of Individuality 125

2. Fragmentation 126

  • 2.1.Anarchy and Chaos 126
  • 2.2.Atomization and Dissolution 131
  • 2.3.The Dust of Convictions  134

3. Diremptio 135

  • 3.1.General 135
  • 3.2.Thinking and Doing 136
  • 3.3.Body and Mind 137
  • 3.4.The Arts 138
  • 3.4.1.Art and Life 138
  • 3.4.2.Art and Work 139

4. Cultural Anarchy 139

  • 4.1.Science and Knowledge 139
  • 4.1.1.Specialization 139
  • 4.1.2.The Part and the Whole 141
  • 4.1.3.Vivisection 142
  • 4.1.4.Knowledge and Wisdom 143
  • 4.1.5.Unity Lost 144
  • 4.2.Crumbling Aesthetics 144
  • 4.2.1.Literature 144
  • 4.2.2.Painting and Music 147
  • 4.3.Cultural Centralization 149
  • Notes 152

Chapter Three: The Democratic Way 175

1. Votes for Everybody 179

  • 1.1.General Suffrage 179
  • 1.2.Parliamentarism 181
  • 1.3.Democracy and Equality 182
  • 1.3.1. Mediocrity 184
  • 1.4.'Give us a Leader!' 186
  • 1.4.1. Metaphors 189

2. Art and Democracy 190

  • 2.1.Disrespect for the Past 190
  • 2.2.Aristocrats versus Democrats 191
  • 2.3.The Rise of the Novel 192
  • 3.Pseudo-Authorities 193
  • 3.1.Press 193
  • 3.2.Public Opinion 197
  • 3.3.Common Sense 202
  • 3.4.Publicity and Phraseology 203
  • Notes 209

Chapter Four: Man and Machinery 229

1. Mechanization 232

  • 1.1.Faith in Machines 232
  • 1.2.The Curse of Machines 233
  • 1.3.Specifications 236
  • 1.3.1.A Metaphor: the Wheel 236
  • 1.3.2.An Example: the Railways 237
  • 1.3.3.The Mechanization of War 239
  • 1.4.Identification 240
  • 1.5.Master and Slave 243

2. Thought and Style 248

  • 2.1.Habits of Thought 248
  • 2.2.Style 249
  • 2.3.Artistic Production 250
  • 2.3.1. Artistic Overproduction 251
  • 2.4.Art and Photography 253
  • Notes 256

Chapter Five: Money and Commerce 271

1. The Cult of Money 272

  • 1.1.Money is Power 272
  • 1.1.1. Banknotes and Coins 276
  • 1.2.Philanthropy 277

2. Commercial Centres 278

  • 2.1.The Stock Exchange 278
  • 2.2.World Exhibitions 279
  • Notes 284

Chapter Six: Ideological Confusion 293

  • 1.The Gospel of Labour 296
  • 1.1.Never-ceasing Work 296
  • 1.2.Leisure 301
  • 1.3.Recreation 305

2. The Idolatry of Progress 307

  • 2.1.False Assumptions 307
  • 2.2.Inevitability or Choice? 309
  • 2.3.Fundamentals 310
  • 2.4.The Road to Destruction 313
  • 2.4.1. The 'Titanic Disaster 315
  • 2.5.Dialectical Compensation 316
  • 2.6.Paradoxical Aspects 317
  • 2.8.Historical Comparisons 319
  • 2.9.Questions 322
  • 2.10.Irony, Hatred, Rodomontade 323
  • 2.11.Art and Progress 327
  • Notes 329

Chapter Seven: Ends and Means 351

1. Absence of Ends 354

  • 1.1.Aimlessness 354
  • 1.2.To what End? 355
  • 1.3.Forgotten Aims 357

2. Ends and Means 358

  • 2.1.Mutual Relations 358
  • 2.2.Confusion 359
  • 2.3.Specifications 361
  • 2.3.1Industrialism 361
  • 2.3.2Economic Activity 362
  • 2.3.3.Action for Actions Sake 363
  • 2.3.4.Wealth 364
  • 2.3.5.Education 366
  • 2.3.5.1.Classics 366
  • 2.3.5.2.Learning 367
  • 2.3.6.Technology 368
  • 2.3.7.Absurdities 369
  • Notes 372

Chapter Eight: Threats to the Individual 383

1. The Nature of Work 386

  • 1.1.The Division of Labour 386
  • 1.2.Specialization 389

2. The Individual and the Crowd 391

  • 2.1.De-individualization 391
  • 2.2.Massification 396
  • 2.2.1. Militarism 402
  • 2.3.Isolation 403

3. Homogeneity 405

  • 3.1.Standardization and Levelling 405
  • 3.2.Conformity and Uniformity 408

4. Accelerand 409

  • 4.1.Times of Old 409
  • 4.2.Move We Must!410
  • 4.4.Immediacy 413
  • 4.5.Fever and Insanity 414
  • 4.6.Means and Meaning 415
  • 4.7.The Pace of Change 416
  • 4.8.Art and Acceleration 418

5. Lost simplicity 419

  • 5.1.Complexity 419
  • 5.2.The Abstract and the General 421
  • Notes 425

Chapter Nine: Devitalization 449

1. Decline in Vigour 453

  • 1.1.The Cost of Civilization 453
  • 1.2.Loss of Youth and Virtue 458
  • 1.3.Loss of Energy and Courage 460
  • 1.4.Lack of Passion 463
  • 1.5.Effeminacy and Refinement 464
  • 1.6.Weakness and Exhaustion 467
  • 1.7.Boredom and Indifference 470
  • 1.7.1. Sunday Bloody Sunday 474
  • 1.8.A Hothouse Climate 475

2. Abundance 476

  • 2.1.Luxury 476
  • 2.2.Personal Comfort 478

3. Negative Vitalit  480

  • 3.1.Artificial Excitement 480
  • 3.2.Stimulants and Sedatives 481
  • 3.2.1.Tobacco 481
  • 3.2.2.Alcohol  482
  • 3.2.3.Opium, Laudanum, etc 484

4. Musicalization of Culture 484

  • 4.1.The Tyranny of Music 484
  • 4.2.Temptation 486
  • 4.3.Dissolving Views 487
  • 4.3.1. Intoxication 489
  • Notes 492

Chapter Ten: Psychological Traits 515

1. Emotions  520

  • 1.1.Tragedy and Death 520
  • 1.2.Happiness, Spontaneity and Joy 521
  • 1.3. Love 523
  • 1.3.1.Sex and Marriage 523
  • 1.3.2.Domesticity and Respectability 528

2. Seriousness 532

  • 2.1.Serious and Morbid Times 532
  • 2.2.Laughter 536
  • 2.3.Festivals and Festivities 539

3. The Inward and the Outward 542

  • 3.1.Inwardness 542
  • 3.2.'Tout est dehors 545
  • 3.3.Outwardness 547
  • 3.3.1.The Fear of Silence 549
  • 3.4.Being and Doing 549

4. Anxieties 550

  • 4.1.Symptoms of Unease 550
  • 4.1.1.Spleen 550
  • 4.1.2.Melancholy, Sadness, Suffering, Nausea 554
  • 4.1.3.Worry, Doubts, Restlessness 558
  • 4.1.4.Nerves and Neuroses 558
  • 4.1.5.'Poètes de l'Hôpital' 562
  • 4.2.Suicidal Tendencies 566
  • Notes 569

Chapter Eleven Art and Alienation 599

1. Art 603

  • 1.1.Purpose 603
  • 1.2.Content 608
  • 1.3.National or Cosmopolitan? 610
  • 1.3.1. Excursus: Wagner in France (post-1870) 612

2. Art for Art's Sake 614

  • 2.1.Usage (before 1840) 614
  • 2.1.1.Excursus: The Case of Victor Hugo 616
  • 2.1.2.A Related Term 617
  • 2.2.Protest 618

3. Artists  619

  • 3.1.Alienation and Isolation 619
  • 3.1.1. A Metaphor: Robinson Crusoe 622
  • 3.2.Who's to blame? 623
  • Notes 629

Chapter Twelve: Past, Present, Future 647

1. Historicity 652

  • 1.1.Lure of the Past 652
  • 1.2.Living in Retrospect 654
  • 1.3.Lost Glory 656
  • 1.3.1.Middle Ages 656
  • 1.3.2.Renaissance 658
  • 1.4.The Burden of the Past 660
  • 1.5.Crushing Heritage 663
  • 1.5.1.Desperation 663
  • 1.5.2.A Continuous Challenge 668
  • 1.6.Submission 671
  • 1.7.Inertia 673

2. Museums and Libraries 674

  • 2.1.Theft and Displacement 674
  • 2.1.1. Motherless Children 676
  • 2.2.Warehouses 677
  • 2.3.Hospitals and Mortuaries 678
  • 2.4.The Myth of Education 680
  • 2.4.1. Ravagers 681
  • 2.5.Libraries 682

3. Demands of the Present 683

  • 3.1.To be of ones own Time 683
  • 3.1.1. Nowness 688
  • 3.2.To be Intense and Original 690
  • 3.3.To be Novel and Modern 691
  • 3.4.What about Posterity? 693

4. Anticipation 695

  • 4.1.A Transitional Period 695
  • 4.2.Futurity 698
  • Notes 702

Chapter Thirteen Europe: Divisions and Dilemmas 733

1. North-South Dichotomy 736

  • 1.1.Mental Disposition 736
  • 1.2.Artistic Inclination 740
  • 1.2.1. Romanticism versus Classicism  741
  • 1.3.Physical and Psychological 744
  • 1.4.Energy and Idleness 746
  • 1.5.The Protestant Ethic 748

2. Hope and Despair 750

  • 2.1. A Sense of Ending 750
  • 2.1.1.Moribund Europe 750
  • 2.1.2.The Medical Metaphor 754
  • 2.1.2.1.The Time is Sick 754
  • 2.1.2.2.Fatal Illness 755
  • 2.2. Loss and Longing 756

3. Big Brother 757

  • 3.1.Negative Perceptions of America 757
  • 3.2.Fears of Americanization 760
  • 3.3.A Fresh Start? 763

4. Identity and Unity 765

  • 4.1.War and Peace 765
  • 4.2.European Identity 768
  • 4.3.European Unity 771

Notes 774
Biographical Author Index 799
Name Index 877

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